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Sodium batteries, lithium batteries, and lead-acid batteries stand side by side. Who will dominate the future?

Nov 16, 2023

In recent years, under the background of carbon neutrality, sodium ion batteries have emerged in an all-round way. With their huge market prospects and advantages such as safety and low cost, they have once again heated up the battery market.

As the "new favorite" in the new energy travel market, vehicle brands and battery brands, whether new energy vehicles or two-wheeled electric vehicles, have all laid out this new track to promote the rapid development of the sodium ion battery industry.

It is not difficult to see that sodium ion batteries are becoming more and more popular. So, what are the advantages of sodium ion batteries? Will their existence replace lithium ion batteries and lead-acid batteries?

sodium ion batteries

Raw material price comparison: lithium-ion battery>lead-acid battery>sodium-ion battery

Relevant data shows that raw materials account for more than 60% of the battery cost structure, and raw material price fluctuations are a key factor affecting the cost of power batteries.

Judging from the distribution of raw materials, lead-acid batteries are rich in raw materials and domestic resources are abundant; sodium-ion batteries are rich in raw materials and domestic resources are relatively abundant; lithium electronic batteries have sufficient lithium resources, but they are unevenly distributed.

The current price of lithium carbonate, the raw material for lithium-ion batteries, is $30,000/ton, while the price of sodium carbonate, the raw material for sodium-ion batteries, is only $400/ton. Compared with lithium-ion batteries, one of the biggest advantages of sodium-ion batteries is that raw materials are widely distributed and cheap.

lithium-ion batteries

Comparison of cycle times: lithium battery > sodium battery > lead-acid battery

Ordinary lead-acid batteries only have a discharge cycle of 300-500, so many batteries can only be used for 1-2 years before needing to be replaced.

The cycle number of lithium iron phosphate battery is about 3000-4000 times, the cycle number of ternary lithium battery is about 2000 times, and the cycle number of sodium ion battery is about 2000+ times, which is basically equivalent to the lithium iron phosphate battery, and the low temperature performance of sodium battery is significantly stronger. for lithium batteries.

Safety comparison: sodium battery>lead-acid battery>lithium battery

With the implementation of the new national standards, lithium ion batteries have begun to be widely used, but the safety issues that have arisen have frequently caused controversy. What is clear is that the safety of lithium ion batteries produced by regular manufacturers is acceptable, but be careful to avoid accidents such as high temperatures and violent impacts when using them. The safety of lead-acid batteries is also relatively reliable, because its structure is simple and it is not easy to short circuit or explode. However, lead-acid batteries contain harmful substances and pose a greater risk of environmental pollution.

In contrast, sodium-ion batteries have a higher internal resistance than lithium-ion batteries, generate less instantaneous heat under short circuit, have lower temperature rise, and are safer. In addition, sodium-ion batteries can operate normally in the temperature range of -40°C to 80°C, and have excellent high and low temperature performance.

sodium-ion batteries

Environmental protection comparison: sodium battery = lithium battery > lead-acid battery

In terms of environmental protection, lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries are significantly better than lead-acid batteries. Lead-acid batteries contain a large amount of heavy metal lead, which if disposed of casually or even deliberately discharged, will pose a great threat to the environment and human health.

On the contrary, the elements contained in lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries have less impact on the environment and can be recycled and reused, which is conducive to environmental protection and sustainable development.

Through the above comparison,  have obvious advantages in safety, environmental protection, charging speed, low temperature tolerance, etc. In addition, through the actual demand analysis of major vehicle brands and battery companies, it can also be found that the market has a strong demand for sodium ion batteries, and the prospects of sodium ion batteries are very promising.

sodium ion batteries

Will sodium ion batteries replace lead-acid batteries and lithium ion batteries?

Judging from the overall development prospects of the domestic two-wheeled electric vehicle industry, whether it is policy, technology or market demand, it will enter a path of rapid development in the next few years. As the core component of electric vehicles, the market demand and The scale will also increase further.


Although the lead-acid battery industry is under siege from many parties and its market share is gradually being divided, with the technological advancement of the domestic lead-acid battery industry, the quality level of lead-acid battery products has been continuously improving in the past two years.

The penetration rate of lithium ion batteries in the travel field is also increasing. At the same time, factors such as the implementation of new national standards, the drive for battery swapping in the distribution market, and the entry of well-known companies are also stimulating the continued growth of lithium ion batteries in the electric two-wheeled vehicle market.

As a "rising star" in the battery industry, the advantage of sodium ion batteries lies not only in their performance, but also in their prospects in the market.

As sodium ion battery technology further matures and the market gradually expands, it is expected to become an important player in the battery market in the future. However, according to professional analysis, although the future development prospects of sodium ion batteries are bright, they are not a substitute for lithium ion batteries. As a supplement to lithium ion batteries, it is currently a more reasonable positioning. And judging from the policy trends in the past two years, the sodium ion battery market is still in its early stages, and industrialization will still take time.

Of course, the first year of sodium electricity in 2023 has gradually begun. The industrialization process of sodium-ion batteries is rapidly advancing, and large-scale applications are just around the corner.

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